A Guide to Instructional Design Models

A Guide to Instructional Design Models

Instructional design is a critical component in education, training, and eLearning. It helps create engaging, effective, meaningful learning experiences catering to learners’ diverse needs. The field of instructional design has evolved over the years, with various instructional design models emerging to offer unique perspectives and strategies for creating impactful instruction.

This article will explore instructional design models, their applications, strengths, and weaknesses. Additionally, we are excited to announce the launch of our new eBook, “An Introduction to Instructional Design Models”. Read on to discover how these models can revolutionise your approach to instructional design and how our eBook can serve as a valuable resource on your journey.

Instructional Design Models

Elevate your instructional design skills today with “An Introduction to Instructional Design Models.” Whether you’re looking to refine your current methods or explore new strategies, this eBook offers the comprehensive insights and practical guidance you need. Don’t miss out on this essential resource—unlock the full potential of your educational and training programmes now. Grab your copy and start transforming your learning experiences!

The Importance of Instructional Design Models

Instructional design models provide structured frameworks that guide instructional designers through creating effective learning experiences. These models help address common challenges instructional designers face, such as identifying clear learning objectives, meeting diverse learner needs, balancing content and application, engaging and motivating learners, and evaluating instructional effectiveness.

By understanding and applying instructional design models, designers can create more impactful, engaging, and inclusive instruction, ultimately empowering learners to succeed personally and professionally.

Exploring Instructional Design Models

Let’s take a closer look at some of the most prominent instructional design models:

  1. ADDIE Model The ADDIE Model is a widely used instructional design model that follows a linear approach. It comprises five phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each phase shapes the learning experience, ensuring it aligns with desired outcomes and caters to learners’ unique needs.
  2. Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification system that organises learning objectives into a hierarchical structure based on their cognitive complexity. The taxonomy includes six levels of learning: remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analysing, Evaluating, and Creating. Bloom’s Taxonomy helps instructional designers create learning experiences that target various cognitive levels, promoting deeper understanding and critical thinking.
  3. Successive Approximation Model (SAM) The Successive Approximation Model (SAM) is an iterative instructional design model emphasising rapid prototyping and continuous improvement. SAM consists of three phases: Preparation, Iterative Design, and Iterative Development. This model allows instructional designers to adapt and refine their instruction based on feedback from learners and stakeholders, ensuring that the final product meets the desired learning outcomes.
  4. Robert Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction is a model that outlines nine instructional events designed to promote effective learning: Gain attention, Inform learner of objectives, Stimulate recall of prior learning, Present content, Provide learning guidance, Elicit performance, Provide feedback, Assess performance, and Enhance retention and transfer. By incorporating these events into instruction, instructional designers can create engaging and motivating learning experiences that facilitate skill development and knowledge transfer.
  5. Merrill’s Principles of Instruction (MPI) Merrill’s Principles of Instruction (MPI) is a model focusing on five core instruction principles: Task-centred, Activation, Demonstration, Application, and Integration. These principles emphasise the importance of real-world tasks, learner engagement, and practice in creating meaningful learning experiences.
  6. Dick and Carey Model The Dick and Carey Model is a systematic instructional design model that includes components such as Instructional Goal, Instructional Analysis, Learner Analysis, Performance Objectives, Criterion-Referenced Test Items, Instructional Strategy, Instructional Materials, Formative Evaluation, and Summative Evaluation. This comprehensive model guides instructional designers through each aspect of the design process, ensuring that the instruction is tailored to meet the needs of learners and achieves the desired outcomes.
  7. Kemp Design Model The Kemp Design Model is a flexible, non-linear instructional design model comprising eight elements: Instructional problems, Objectives, Learner characteristics, Task analysis, Content, Learning experiences, Instructional resources, and Evaluation instruments. This model encourages instructional designers to consider all aspects of the learning experience and adapt their approach based on their projects’ unique contexts and constraints.
  8. Action Mapping by Cathy Moore Action Mapping is an instructional design model developed by Cathy Moore that focuses on creating learning experiences that drive real-world performance improvement. The model consists of four steps: identify goals, Analyse performance, Choose activities, and Design materials. Action Mapping helps instructional designers create relevant, engaging, and effective instruction by emphasising performance-based learning and practical application.

Introducing Our New eBook: “An Introduction to Instructional Design Models”

We are thrilled to announce the launch of our new eBook, “An Introduction to Instructional Design Models.” This comprehensive guide explores the instructional design models discussed in this blog post and their applications, strengths, and weaknesses.

“An Introduction to Instructional Design Models” is an invaluable resource for instructional designers at all stages of their careers. It offers insights and guidance on creating impactful learning experiences that empower learners to succeed in their personal and professional lives.

Don’t miss out on this opportunity to elevate your instructional design skills and unlock the full potential of your instruction. Get your copy of “An Introduction to Instructional Design Models” today!


Instructional design models offer invaluable guidance for creating impactful learning experiences. By understanding and applying these models, instructional designers can address common challenges and create instruction that meets the needs of their learners and achieves desired learning outcomes.

To expand your instructional design knowledge and skills, consider investing in our new eBook, “An Introduction to Instructional Design Models.” This comprehensive guide will serve as a valuable resource on your journey towards mastering the art and science of instructional design.


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